Define "It" to Strengthen Your Writing

Have you ever been engrossed in a great story and suddenly stopped short to ask yourself what the writer is referring to when “it” appears? Here’s an example:

“Sue and Mary found six dresses to try. It fit and was in her price range.”

strengthen-your-writing
Image courtesy of artur84 at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

What is “it,” exactly? In the context of the sentence above, “it” is used as a pronoun, and illustrates a common (and avoidable) writer mistake:

Undefined pronouns

A quick grammar review: Pronouns are a useful part of speech that give writers greater flexibility in naming schemes. Instead of using and reusing a noun, the substitution of a pronoun allows for a type of shorthand. For example, instead of writing, “The moment John walk into the store, John realized John had forgotten John’s wallet at home” (pretty clunky, huh?), this sentence becomes, “The moment John walked into the store, he realized he had forgotten his wallet at home.”

Personal pronouns are fairly straightforward. Most of us use I, he, she, they, him, her, them, his, hers, and theirs properly . . . but “it” often present unique problems for writers.

The Problem with “It”

When I edit manuscripts, I usually see two different but related problems with the use of “it”: Continue reading “Define "It" to Strengthen Your Writing”

What Is It? Avoid Undefined Pronouns to Strengthen Your Writing

“He worked hard to earn enough money to buy it.”Undefined pronouns

What is “it,” exactly? In the context of the sentence above, “it” is used as a pronoun, and illustrates a common (and avoidable) writer error:

Undefined pronouns

A quick grammar review: Pronouns are a useful part of speech that give writers greater flexibility in naming schemes. Instead of using and reusing a noun, the substitution of a pronoun allows for a type of shorthand. For example, instead of writing, “The moment John walk into the store, John realized John had forgotten John’s wallet at home” (pretty clunky, huh?), this sentence becomes, “The moment John walked into the store, he realized he had forgotten his wallet at home.”

Personal pronouns are fairly straightforward. Most of us use I, he, she, they, him, her, them, his, hers, and theirs properly . . . but “it” often present unique problems for writers.

The Problem with It #grammar #writetip #editing Click To Tweet

The Problem with “It”

When I edit manuscripts, I usually see two different but related problems with the use of “it”:

  1. The pronoun “it” does not relate to the antecedent
  2. The pronoun “it” is part of vague sentence construction.

In plain English, the first problem is using a pronoun that is ambiguous or doesn’t refer to a specific noun. Example:

 Although the pizza delivery van ran into the school bus, it was not damaged.

Does “it” represent the pizza delivery van or the school bus? We just can’t tell by the way this sentence is constructed. The pronoun doesn’t clearly relate to the antecedent.

Vague sentence construction and the indefinite use of “it” often calls for a sentence revision. Here’s an example of a problem sentence:

“Mary wondered if it was something about the energy of young people that animals pick up and want to be around.”

When “it” is combined with a form of the verb “to be,” take a closer look to see if there might be a better way to construct your sentence:

“Mary wondered if animals pick up on the energy of young people and want to be around it.”

In the above example, “it” stands in for “the energy of young people.”

 “Mary wondered if the energy of young people was something animals pick up and want to be around.”

This example eliminates “it” completely.

When self-editing your work, remember to add “it” to your list of words and terms to search and possibly replace. You don’t need to avoid this pronoun, but use “it” wisely and properly.

If you have any great tips for avoiding the overuse of “it” in your writing. please share in the comments.

Happy Writing,

Candace

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Candace Johnson is a professional freelance editor, proofreader, writer, ghostwriter, and writing coach who has worked with traditional publishers, self-published authors, and independent book packagers on nonfiction subjects ranging from memoirs to alternative medical treatments to self-help, and on fiction ranging from romance to paranormal. As an editorial specialist, Candace is passionate about offering her clients the opportunity to take their work to the next level. She believes in maintaining an author’s unique voice while helping him or her create and polish every sentence to make it the best it can be.

Image courtesy of Master isolated images at FreeDigitalPhotos.net

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Manuscript Editing Demystified

I was invited by Shonda Brock, author of the paranormal romance Eternal Traces, to help demystify the editing process for new authors as well as to share some tips on how to edit your book and how to find the right professional editor.

Shonda asked some great questions, including “What are your thoughts on authors using beta readers before sending a manuscript to a professional editor?” and “How much can a writer expect to spend to have an average length novel professionally edited?”, so please read on to learn more, and don’t forget to check out Shonda’s paranormal romance Eternal Traces!

How do you find the right editor for your book? #writers #editing Click To Tweet

1. You love words. What made you choose to be an editor instead of a writer?

Actually, I am both, but I especially love working with people and the words they write. Strong writing skills are important to be an effective editor, but there is also an intangible that a good editor has: the ability to hone in on what makes a piece of writing “tick.” I approach every project I work on as a collaborative effort between writer and editor, and maintaining your distinctive voice while suggesting and making necessary changes is a top priority for me.


2. Can you give us a brief description of your editing process?

With developmental or substantive editing, which is the “big picture” type of editing, I work with the writer to figure out what is and isn’t working with a manuscript. My first step is to read the manuscript all the way through, and I make notes as I do so. Once I have a feel for the writer’s voice and the story she’s crafted, I go back and examine every aspect of the manuscript to see what’s working and what isn’t. Is the story compelling? Do the subplots enhance the main story? Are the characters fully developed? Do the story arcs work effectively to compel the reader to keep reading? If I see issues like plot holes, unnecessary characters, weak or slow passages, or even chapters or characters that aren’t working, I bring these to the author’s attention, and I often suggest possible revisions that might fix that particular problem. There can be quite a bit of brainstorming with this level of editing, and I love the collaborative process of helping a writer improve her work, which ultimately makes the story that much better for the reader.

Copyediting is more detail-oriented, and is often called line editing. At this level of editing, I’m concerned with the mechanics of the writing: spelling, punctuation, and grammar faux pas such as correct and consistent tenses, sentence structure, and word usage. I’ll also point out lapses in logic or sequential errors, but this level of editing assumes that the writer has completed revisions to the work, so the editing is more about the mechanics of the writing than about the ideas in the work.


3. Most new writers don’t know where to begin or how to manage revisions once they’ve completed their story. What’s the secret to keeping focused and organized when editing a large body of work like a novel?

Every writer has to find the system that works best for him or her, but as a rule of thumb, the best thing to do first is put the manuscript away for a period of time; give yourself a chance to gain a little perspective.

Once you’re ready to begin revisions, I suggest running a spell check first and a grammar check second. Not only will you catch many of your mistakes, but you’ll also see some of your patterns of error, which will help you improve your writing in the future. But don’t automatically accept the corrections—software doesn’t know that your character is an uneducated bumpkin who is supposed to say “I’s good with it.”

The next step is to read—just read—through the entire manuscript. Take off your writer hat and become your potential reader. Pay attention to the characters, the flow, the plot holes, and make notes of things you want to come back to, but don’t begin revising yet. Go ahead and fix any glaring errors that jump out at you (like the spelling or punctuation errors that still remain), but try to just keep reading so you’ll have a good sense of what you’ve written. By the time you finish this read-through, you should be able to see what’s working and what isn’t and begin revising.

There are a plethora of software programs available to help writers stay focused and organized while they write and edit. The best advice I have is: stay organized and focused while you write and edit. Back everything up. Delete nothing (save it all in a separate folder—you never know when that minor character you decided to delete might make a great protagonist in another story). Whatever system you use, use a system so you aren’t overwhelmed with jumping around nilly-willy, which creates a whole new set of problems, especially with consistency throughout the novel.


4. What do you find are the most common mistakes writers make?

Most writers fall into a pattern of error that they aren’t even aware of. When we don’t know we are doing something incorrectly, we just keep repeating the same mistake. If you have a tendency to use dangling modifiers, for example, you probably use them quite frequently. The same can be said for comma splices, run-on sentences, and of course, punctuation, which is almost everyone’s Achilles heel. I was the queen of semicolons before I learned how to use them correctly!


5. Especially in this frenzy of self-publication, why is it important for a writer to hire a professional editor to polish their his or her manuscript?

There’s an old saying that “You never get a second chance to make a first impression.” This is especially true in publishing. Professional, quality editing isn’t cheap. But how much will it cost you to publish a poorly constructed story full of spelling, grammar, and punctuation errors? At the very least, make sure you have your work professionally proofread before it is published.

When you engage intellectually in the editing process, you’ll find your writing improves and your ideas crystallize as a result. Remember that your editor hasn’t lived with your ideas, plot, or character—and that’s one of the reasons why you hired him or her to work with you. It is difficult to be objective about your writing when you are so close to it, so really consider every suggestion—then discuss your ideas and concerns, and make your editor your partner in creating the very best work you are capable of writing.


6. What are your thoughts on authors using beta readers before sending a manuscript to a professional editor?

I think it’s a very wise decision. Quality professional editing isn’t cheap, and any mistakes you fix or revisions you complete before you involve a professional editor will save you time and money in the long run. Beta readers can point out those patterns of error, those plot holes, those undeveloped characters, and by the time you begin working with an editor, you’ll be icing the cake instead of searching for raw ingredients to put into the bowl.

One word of caution, though: beta readers, your best friend, your high school English teacher—and even your editor—may have differing opinions about changes you should make. “Too many cooks spoil the soup” is a truism when you begin revisions on your WIP. Consider the suggestions that make sense to you, the ideas that respect your authorial voice, and don’t feel compelled to make a change that doesn’t improve your work. In the end, this is your story.


7. How does a writer determine whether an editor is right for their his or her book?

The writer/editor relationship is a lot like a marriage: communication and trust are vital to success. I encourage writers to do three things when shopping for an editor:

  1. Ask for references from other authors who have worked with that editor. You wouldn’t let just any mechanic fix your car; don’t let just any editor fix your words. Check the websites of editors you’re considering; I read one website for a “professional editor” that was filled with grammar errors and misspellings. Ah . . . no. And don’t be afraid to conduct an interview—you’re spending your hard-earned money, and you deserve the best!
  2. Discuss your needs and expectations with the editor you are considering. If you don’t know what you want or need from an editor, you might not end up with the editing you thought you were getting. You don’t even need to know the correct terminology—a professional editor can help you figure that out. The more specific you can be about what you want from an edit, the more you’ll get for your editing dollars.
  3. Ask for a sample edit. Each editor has a slightly different approach to editing, and one of the best ways to see if that approach works for you is through a sample edit. Blindly hiring an editor because he’s inexpensive or she knows your mother isn’t a wise business decision. Reviewing a sample edit will give you a huge insight into a particular editor’s knowledge and ability, so don’t hesitate to ask for one before making this important financial and professional decision.

When you hire an editor at any stage from development to proofreading, be sure you know what you want and need. For example, if you just want a professional opinion on a section that doesn’t seem to work after you’ve revised it several times, don’t pay to have the entire manuscript copyedited.


8. What credentials should a writer look for when seeking a professional editor?

First, in my experience, a good editor is intellectually curious, well-read, a good writer, and is compelled to edit.

Most editors don’t hold a formal degree in publishing or editing; while many have an English degree, that alone does not make a good editor. (I do have an English degree. )
Many editors (myself included) learned from working with editor-mentors, and then from hands-on experience. I have a page of testimonials on my website from authors I’ve worked with—not to pat myself on the back, but to let potential clients know that I’ve worked with authors who recommend my work.


9. How much can a writer expect to spend to have an average length novel professionally edited?

The industry standard word count for a page is a firm 250 words, so a 75,000 word novel would be 300 editing pages. (This may not be the page count of the printed book, which varies based on typeface, layout, and other factors.) According to the Editorial Freelancer Association (EFA), an experienced freelance editor can complete a basic copyedit at 5 to 10 pages per hour; a heavy copyedit is 2 to 5 pages per hour. That comes to somewhere between 30 and 150 hours for those 300 pages, depending on the amount of editing needed. That’s quite a range, I know, so let’s base our estimate on an average of 5 pages per hour, or 60 hours. The EFA’s suggested rates are $30 to $40 per hour for a basic copyedit and $40 to $50 per hour for a heavy edit, so depending on the amount of work necessary, that 75,000 word novel will cost between $1,800 and $3,000 to edit. You’ll usually pay more for developmental editing and less for proofreading.

Before you swear you can never afford to spend that kind of money, please remember these are price ranges. I base my fees on each individual project because every project is unique.


10. What advice can you give writers that will make the editing process less painful?

In my experience, the number one reason writers avoid using a professional freelance editor is cost. Shelling out money with no guarantee of a return on your investment is something that’s easy to talk yourself out of doing. So spend your money wisely. Don’t waste it by handing over a first draft and expecting an editor to “just fix it.”

The pain of editing only goes away when you work with an editor you trust. Invest the time to find the right editor, be sure you share expectations for what the edit will accomplish, and verify with a sample edit that the editor is a good partner for you. Establish a relationship built on solid communication and you’ll not only enjoy your editing experience, but you’ll learn invaluable skills you’ll bring to your future writing.

 

Thanks for stopping by, and happy writing!

—Candace

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